There must be no air pockets built in the production process of roofing tiles, cricks, porcelain and technical ceramics. Ceramic with such pockets when fired can be destroyed in the kiln and even can destruct the complete batch. The quality defect in bricks can be witnessed after years, especially in winters, water gets into the surface pores and cause the bricks to burst.
Air removal from clay
Once brick clay is into the extruder, vacuum can be generated for air removal, preventing air pockets formation and subsequent bricks breakage. Just like brick clay, ceramic clay is put into the mixer and pressurized with either water or water vapor for forming a homogeneous mixture. The mixture is then passed into the extruder for pressing into molds under high pressure. The material is then extruded to desired length, followed by the drying and firing processes.
The vacuum pumps offered are used in chemical industry for a number of applications, some of which are as follows:
Crude Oil Vacuum Distillation
In refineries, crude oil is used in the production of gasoline and other Hydrocarbon fuels through atmospheric or vacuum distillation. Crude oil vacuum distillation applies a vacuum to a crude oil distillation column. The crude oil is separated by the heat and vacuum combination into several components on the bases of their boiling temperature. This is done so that lighter components, like gasoline can be recovered. In comparison to the atmospheric distillation tower, vacuum distillation is more energy efficient.
Vent Gas Compression
Non-condensable and light hydrocarbon gases are collected from the crude distillation tower and other refinery vents in a common header and passed to flare or vent gas compressors, where the vent gases having some fuel value (BTU'S) up to the desired discharge pressure are compressed and burnt for energy recovery.
Vapor Recovery/Gas Boosting
Unlike vent gas recovery where vapors recovered are of a relatively fixed composition rather than a variable mixture, this application captures gases vented from storage tanks. The storage tank is protected by controlling the depth of vacuum. The discharge pressure is relatively low. In many cases, the gases return to the process or are liquify and return to the storage tank.
Chlorine compression is applied for recovering and compressing. The seal liquid is concentrated (> 96%) sulfuric acid. The materials to be used must share compatibility with this highly dangerous gas and seal liquid.
Hydrogen compression is done for the hydrogen gas recovery. Challenges are created by the low molecular weight of hydrogen and its explosive nature.
The use of vacuum system in a batch process helps in the recovery of solvents through evaporation at a maximum sustainable rate. A compatible seal liquid can be used during later portions of the cycle for extracting residual solvents.
Vinyl Chloride Monomer
Unreacted vinyl chloride is transferred into a holding tank in the monomer recovery system. The gas is collected from the PVC by the vacuum system and is delivered to the compressor at or near atmospheric pressure. The gas is then compressed by a single stage compressor system for condensation and storage as a pressurized liquid.
We have specified some of the applications of vacuum pump in the field of electrical power here:
Condenser exhausting is done to remove air and other non-condensable gases from the steam space of power plant condensers. This removal process is carried out for maintaining the lowest possible turbine backpressure. This application uses a critical equipment for efficient operation of thermal and nuclear power plants.
Geothermal Gas Removal
Just like condenser exhausting application, geothermal gas removal process is carried out to remove air and other non-condensable gases from the steam space of the condensers. However, in geothermal power plant, steam used for driving the turbine is extracted from the earth and contains corrosive gases. It is crucial to remove the gases from the condenser.
In vacuum priming, vacuum pumps maintain a siphon in power plant cooling water systems, which allows cooling water circulating pumps to maintain design cooling water flows while consuming less power. Single stage liquid ring pump packages provided with priming valves, are apt for this application as they prevent water slugs ingesting into the pumps.
Fly Ash Conveying
This application comprises pneumatically conveying of fly ash from the precipitator hoppers to a central dry collection point under vacuum. The benefit of using this conveying system is that the leakage is of air inward, and not ash outward, as the ash is being conveyed under vacuum.
Flue Gas Desulphurization
An aqueous slurry generates when the flue gas is scrubbed for removing sulfur compounds. It is beneficial in removing water from the slurry and handling only the solid material. Vacuum filters are used in this process.
Turbine Gland Exhausting
Steam turbines employ a gland to seal the shaft against inward air leakage. These glands are sealed with steam. In order for them to function as designed, excess steam and condensate must continuously be removed.
Condenser Initial Evacuation (Hogging)
There are many applications in which vacuum pumps are used for the improvement of environment. In many environmental applications, aeration is a critical function. Vacuum pumps find application in processes, like aeration, gases compression and material collection.
Here are some more of the applications of vacuum pump in the field of environment:
Vacuum pumps provide the suction pressure needed to remove wastewater and to clean sewer networks. These pumps can be used for sucking in the contaminants in the wastewater and flushing them out periodically.
Liquid ring pumps as part of a vacuum priming system can be used for collection, conveying and disposing the wastewater for entire residential areas. Wastewater can be transported, even uphill with the high vacuum capability of the pump.
The products used in the medical equipment must be quality approved and reliable.
Equipment and devices sterilization is crucial in labs, hospitals, medical practices and pharmaceutical facilities. The three different cycles by which sterilizers run are fractionation, sterilization and drying.
Vacuum systems are vital in dental therapies for drawing off saliva, secretions, tooth material and cooling water. Central as well as decentralized vacuum systems are used in dentistry.
There are smallest gas ring blowers in respiratory devices for patients suffering from lung disease. These compress the air, filter the air and enrich it with oxygen or medication if required. There is a valve for regulating the respiratory pressure of the patient as a function of his breathing cycle and treatment.
Air beds with an air-permeable mattress prevents the risk for bedsores in bedridden patients by drying and healing the skin, as well as by varying the pressure on the skin by inflating individual air chambers while deflating others. It is possible to easily position the patient for treatment and personal care through the selective raising and lowering of different areas in air beds.
Protective suits is helpful in preventing infections whenever there is a risk of breathing in contaminated respiratory air.
Central Vacuum Systems
Central vacuum systems are used in hospitals and outpatient surgical clinics to suction the fluids produced by operations. The coarse and fine particles are separated and properly disposed of by a separator in the vicinity of the surgical unit.
There are undesirable large quantities of gases such as nitrogen and oxygen in the liquid pig iron before casting. The degasification process involves either casting of the liquid pig iron in a vacuum container where the gases are extracted or using of a vacuum lance for pumping down the contained gases. Steam jets produce vacuum because of the large gas quantities. Liquid ring vacuum pumps are used with steam jet for saving cost.
Some generic applications in the extraction of alumina from bauxite, copper, titanium dioxide, iron ore, phosphate or coal, are as follows:
Liquid ring vacuum pumps are used to cake dewater on disc, belt, drum and precoat filter applications.
Multiple Effect Evaporators
Non-condensibles are removed by the liquid ring vacuum pumps for maintaining the proper vacuum level in this effect.
Waste Gas Recovery
Liquid ring vacuum compressors can recover CO and other waste gases produced in smelting and other allied operations.
Methane Gas Extraction
Accumulation of methane gas in underground coal mining is not safe. It can cause explosions and loss of life.
Oil & Gas
In the process of safe, non-polluting gas and vapor management, vacuum and compressor systems efficiently handle saturated inlet gas streams, dirty abrasive gas blends, explosive gas blends and unpredictable streams that variates with process variables.
Fuel Gas Boosting
This application uses a booster compressor for providing natural gas to a natural gas engine that can be used in the gas recovery or compression process.
Other applications in oil and gas industry are as follows:
It is possible to automate several processes in the packaging industry with the aid of vacuum or compression, for instance:
Vacuum Packaging & Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) involves packaging of products in modified atmosphere and removing the oxygen to extend the shelf life of goods, without altering the external shape of the product. This process starts by placing the blistered packaged product in vacuum chamber and evacuation. As the modified atmosphere is then injected, a protective film is used to seal the blister package and food.
Production of PET Containers
Vacuum technology is used for processes, like Pellet drying, Pellet conveying, Extruder degassing, Injection molding of preforms, Preform removal and handling, Preform drying, Blow molding of bottles, Plasma treatment to deposit a barrier layer, Pneumatic conveying of bottles, Filling, Labeling, Packeting and palleting, and Recycling.
Crude Oil Stabilization
A liquid ring vacuum pump or compressor can be used for stabilizing the crude oil by degassing the dissolved gases from the crude and stabilizing the True Vapor Pressure [TVP].
Vent Gas Compression
Flare or vent gas compressors are used to compress non-condensable light Hydrocarbon gases from the crude distillation tower and other refinery vents, that have some fuel value up to the desired discharge pressure and then burn to recover the energy.
Vapor Recovery/ Gas Boosting
Vapor recovery/ gas boosting is not like vent gas recovery where the vapors recovered are of a relatively fixed composition rather than a variable blend. The gases vented from the storage tanks are captured. The storage tank is protected by closely controlling the depth of vacuum. Often, the discharge pressure is low and the gases are returned to the process, or are liquefied and returned to the storage tanks.
Filtering or de-waxing recovers waxy compounds from production of Hydrocarbon based oils. The quality and desirability of oils improve by removing waxy compounds. Liquid ring vacuum pumps pull vacuum on continuously rotating disc or drum type filters that might contain inert Nitrogen gas with chilled [MIBK] Methyl Iso-butyl Ketone solvent. An integration of mechanical blower and liquid ring vacuum pumps as a hybrid is possible if higher vacuum levels are required/
Different types or combinations of pharmaceutical manufactured are active ingredients, intermediate products, bulk products and FDA approved drug products. Fine chemical companies generally make bulk pharmaceuticals and intermediates. In the production of all the mentioned products, vacuum applications are used, for instance:
Plastic industry employs vacuum technology in several processes, for instance degassing, drying and conveying.
In the plastic processing, thermoplastic is melted and degassed in the screw section of the extruder. Here, vacuum is used for extracting gaseous and vaporous components from the melt. All low-molecular substances are extracted for obtaining quality thermoplastic with a more strength, smoother surface, better insulating properties and a lower off gassing rate.
EPS foamingCalibrating table (profiling)
Calibrating table process the melted and degassed plastic material into continuous profiles, which are made into pipes or several technical profiles for medical tubing, windows, cable ducts, etc. Suctioning of plastic material is done in a negative mold. In order to cool and lubricate, a film of water is generated between he continuous work piece and the inside of the mold, and is steadily extracted by the vacuum pump.
Pre-expanded polystyrene beads are blown into a mold by a side-channel blower and then pressurized with steam to produce EPS blocks and molded parts. They are then polymerized and "baked" into molded parts. The parts are cooled to prevent deformations during this process. Vacuum is applied to parts to make sure they retain their shape and that the water evaporates immediately. Cooling is done quickly by drawing out the heat produced by the evaporation process.
Pellets are transported to a dryer before further processing in an extruder, in which warm air is circulated from a closed-circuit system. The warm air absorbs moisture from the pellets, which is evacuated by hygroscopic agent to the outside.
Pneumatic conveying systems
Pneumatic conveying system is used for transporting plastic pellets from one place to another at various stages in the production process. There is a pipeline from the starting point to the destination, which further connects to a vacuum pump or compressor.
Vinyl chloride gas extraction and compression
Liquid vinyl chloride is polymerized under pressure in an autoclave to form polymerized PVC, during the production of PVC. The produced gaseous monomers are pumped out, compressed and liquefied.
The paper has special mechanical and specific properties, which enables performing of several operations only with the aid of vacuum or compression.
Paper Cutter Table
An air cushion allows movement and and straightening of stacks of paper when cutting. In this process, small nozzles are built into the surface of table and sealed using spring loaded spheres. Nozzles open up with the weight of the paper stack pressing down on these spheres and release compressed air under the paper.
The blower on the vacuum table generates vacuum to hold the paper sheets together, so that they do not shift during screen printing process.
Powdering on Printing Presses
Post printing, powder is dusted on the still wet paper sheets to prevent the fresh ink from smearing and also prevent the paper sheets from sticking together. A vacuum pump sprays the powder through an injector and apply it to the paper.
Turning Bars and Tables
Paper webs are turned on appropriate bars or tables for double-sided printing. Air is blown through a perforated pipe to generate an air cushion. The paper web glides across the cushion, without even making any contact with the surface. Post the printing, an air cushion makes sure that printed paper webs can be air-dried and then stacked without smudging the still wet ink.
Vacuum or compression is involved in many printing processes, for instance printing, binding, trimming, folding, collating, packaging and labeling. A separate vacuum pump for every production machine is not necessary. A central vacuum system can be used for generating the vacuum needed by all the individual processes. This saves a lot of space in the production area and reduces exposure of employee to heat and noise.
Book Binding Machines
Automatic book binding machines are an integration of several individual machines, each incorporating several vacuum applications. Compressed air is helpful in transporting books or parts of books through suction rollers and pressing on the spines after glue has been applied. The glue is dried and waste paper is blown away by the vacuum pumps and compressors.
Digital Printing " High-Performance Copiers
The blower on the vacuum table during the reproduction or copy process generates a vacuum that holds the negatives or paper sheets in place so they can not shift during printing.
Pulp & Paper
The vacuum pumps in the offering can make paper at less cost and superior quality.
Black Liquor Evaporation
The black liquor evaporator in the pulp mill concentrates the black liquor obtained during the pulp washing process, with the motto to use the liquor in a recovery furnace to reclaim chemicals for re-use in the pulping process. The liquid ring vacuum pump is utilized in the evaporation process.
Brown Stock Washers
The pulping chemicals (or "black liquor") from the raw paper stock are removed by brown stock washers before bleaching or other stock preparation processes. It is a horizontal, rotating drum filter whose interior creates a vacuum. Upon filter rotation into the stock, vacuum enables the stock to adhere to the drum's outer surface and assists to remove the black liquor from the stock.
Lime Mud & Precoat Filters
Lime mud filters in the pulp mill recover the lime utilized in the process of white liquor clarification. Just like the brown stock washer, a lime mud filter is a horizontal, rotating drum filter with a vacuum on the interior of the drum. The rotation of filter into the lime mud forms the cake of lime on the exterior surface of the drum, which is doctored off and reused in the white liquor process.
The dregs filter in the pulp mill removes non-combustible suspended particles, carbon particles from incomplete combustion, pieces of furnace refractory lining (i.e. "dregs") and iron compounds from the "green" liquor before causticizing. This horizontal, rotating drum filter with a vacuum on the interior is used for extracting the particulate from the green liquor.
Decker is rotating, horizontal, drum filter useful in thickening the stock in the stock preparation process. It removes water from the pulp for increasing the consistency of the stock.
Stock and Whitewater Deaeration Systems
Stock and whitewater deaeration systems are useful in the stock preparation process, where it removes any entrained air from the stock or from the dilution water before entering the headbox. Stock deaeration system also removes air from the paper stock, which can cause pinholes in the sheet and affect sheet quality, mechanical properties and printability. First and second stage vacuum pumps are used with the dearation systems.
Headbox Compressor/Vacuum Pump
compressor/vacuum pump in "airpadded" headboxes create a
pressure/vacuum above the stock level in the headbox for controlling
the velocity by which the stock exits the headbox onto the moving
wire. One can use a series of valves to operate Vacuum Pump as both
vacuum pumps and compressors. It is used for creating a vacuum or a
pressure in the void volume above the pond level for controlling the
static head in the headbox.
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